Thứ Tư, 30 tháng 12, 2020

Cách đọc ký hiệu toán học và khoa học trong tiếng Anh

 Common pronunciations (in British English – Gimson,1981) of mathematical and scientific symbols are given in the list below.

Symbols

+plus/’plʌs/
minus/’maɪnəs/
±plus or minus/’plʌs  ɔ:  ‘maɪnəs/
xmultiplied by/’mʌltɪplaɪd baɪ/
/over; divided by/’əʊvə/ /dɪ’vaɪdəd/
÷divided/dɪ’vaɪdəd/
=equals/’ɪ:kwəlz/
approximately, similar/ə’prɒksɪmətlɪ/ /’sɪmɪlə tʊ/
equivalent to; identical/ɪk’wɪvələnt tʊ/ /aɪ’dentɪkl tʊ/
not equal to/’nɒt ‘iːkwəl tʊ/
>greater than/’greɪtə ðən/
<less than/’les ðən/
greater than or equal to/’greɪtə ðən ər ‘iːkwəl tʊ/
less than or equal to/’les ðən ər’ iːkwəl tʊ/
not greater than/’nɒt ‘greɪtə ðən/
not less than/’nɒt ‘les ðən/
much greater than/’mʌʧ ‘greɪtə ðən/
much less than/’mʌʧ ‘les ðən/
perpendicular to/pɜːpən’dɪkjʊlə tʊ/
∣∣parallel to/’pærəlel tʊ/
not equivalent to, not identical to/’nɒt ɪk’wɪvələnt tʊ/ /’nɒt aɪ’dentɪkl tʊ/
≄≉not similar to/’nɒt ‘sɪmɪlə tʊ/
²squared/’skweəd/
³cubed/’kju:bd/
4to the fourth;  to the power four/tə ðə ‘fɔːθ/ /te ðə ‘pɑʊə fɔː/
n to the n; to the nth; to the power n/tə ðɪ en; tə dɪ enθ; tə ðə pɑʊər en/
root; square root/ru:t/ /skweə ru:t/
cube root/kju:b ru:t/
fourth root/fɔːθ ruːt/
!factorial/fæk’tɔːrɪəl/
%percent/pə’sent/
infinity/ɪn’fɪnətɪ/
varies as; proportional to/’vɛərɪz/  /prə’pɔːʃənəl/
˙dot/dɒt/
¨double dot/dʌbl dɒt/
:is to, ratio of/reɪʃɪəʊ/
f(x) fxf; function/ef/ /’fʌŋkʃən/
f'(x)f dash; derivative/dæʃ/ /dɪ’rɪvətɪv/
f”xf double-dash; second derivative/’dʌbl dæʃ/ /’sekənd dɪ’rɪvətɪv/
f”'(x)f triple-dash; f treble-dash; third derivative/’trɪpl dæʃ/ / trebl dæʃ/ /θɜ:d dɪ’rɪvətɪv/
f(4)f four; fourth derivative/fɔːθ dɪ’rɪvətɪv/
partial derivative, delta/paːʃəl dɪ’rɪvətɪv/ /deltə/
integral/’ɪntɪgrəl/
sum/sʌm/
w.r.t.with respect to/wɪð ‘rɪspekt/
loglog/lɒg/
logxlog to the base 2 of x/lɒg tə ðə beɪs tu: əv eks/
therefore/’ðɛəfɔː/
because/bɪ’kɒz/
gives, leads to, approaches/gɪvz/ /li:dz tʊ/ /əprəʊʧəz/
/per/pɜ:/
belongs to; a member of;  an element of/bɪ’lɒŋz/ /’membə/ /’elɪmənt/
does not belong to; is not a member of; is not an element of/nɒt bɪ’lɒŋ/ /nɒt ə ‘membə/ /nɒt ən ‘elɪmənt/
contained in;  a proper subset of/kən’teɪnd ɪn/ /’prɒpə ‘sʌbset/
contained in; subset/’sʌbset/
intersection/’ɪntəsekʃən/
union/’juːnɪən/
for all/fə rɔ:l/
cos xcos x; cosine x/kɒz/
sin xsine x/saɪn/
tan xtangent x/tan/
cosec xcosec x/’kəʊsek/
sinh xshine x/’ʃaɪn/
cosh xcosh x/’kɒʃ/
tanh xthan x/θæn/
|x|mod x; modulus x/mɒd/ /’mɒdjʊləs/
degrees Centigrade/dɪ’gri:z ‘sentɪgreɪd/
degrees Fahrenheit/dɪ’gri:z ‘færənhaɪt/
°Kdegrees Kelvin/dɪ’gri:z ‘kelvɪn/
0°K, –273.15 °Cabsolute zero/absəlu:t zi:rəʊ/
mmmillimetre/’mɪlɪmiːtə/
cmcentimetre/’sentɪmiːtə/
cc, cm³cubic centimetre, centimetre cubed/’kjuːbɪk ‘sentɪmiːtə/ /’sentɪmiːtə ‘kju:bd/
mmetre/’miːtə/
kmkilometre/kɪ’lɒmɪtə/
mgmilligram/’mɪlɪgræm/
ggram/græm/
kgkilogram/’kɪləgræm/
ACA.C./eɪ si:/
DCD.C./di: si:/

^

Examples

x + 1x plus one
x -1x minus one
x ± 1x plus or minus one
xyx y;  x times y; x multiplied by y
(x — y)(x + y) x minus y, x plus y
x/yx over y;  x divided by y;
x ÷ yx divided by y
x = 5x equals 5;  x is equal to 5
x ≈ yx is approximately equal to y
x ≡ yx is equivalent to y;  x is identical with y
x ≠ yx is not equal to y
x > y x is greater than y
x < y x is less than y
x ≥ yx is greater than or equal to y
x ≤ yx is less than or equal to y
0 < x < 1zero is less than x is less than 1; x is greater than zero and less than 1
0 ≤ x ≤ 1zero is less than or equal to x is less than or equal to 1; x is greater than or equal to zero and less than or equal to 1
x squared
x cubed
x4x to the fourth;  x to the power four
xnx to the n; x to the nth;  x to the power n
x-nx to the minus n;  x to the power of minus n
root x; square root x; the square root of x
the cube root of x
the fourth root of x
the nth root of x
(x + y)²x plus y all squared
(x/y)²x over y all squared
n!n factorial; factorial n
x%x percent
infinity
x ∝ yx varies as y; x is (directly) proportional to y
x ∝ 1/yx varies as one over y; x is indirectly proportional to y
x dot
x double dot
f(x) fxf of x; the function of x
f'(x)f dash x; the (first) derivative of with respect to x
f”xf double-dash x; the second derivative of f with respect to x
f”'(x)f triple-dash x; f treble-dash x; the third derivative of f with respect to x
f(4)f four x; the fourth derivative of f with respect to x
∂vthe partial derivative of v
∂v
∂θ
delta v by delta theta, the partial derivative of v with respect to θ
²v
∂θ²
delta two v by delta theta squared; the second partial derivative of v with respect to θ
dvthe derivative of v
dv
d v by d theta, the derivative of v with respect to theta
d²v
²
d 2 v by d theta squared, the second derivative of v with respect to theta,
integral
integralintegral from zero to infinity
sum
the sum from i equals 1 to n
w.r.t.with respect to
logeylog to the base e of y; log y to the base e; natural log (of) y
therefore
because
gives, approaches
Δx → 0delta x approaches zero
lim
Δx→0
the limit as delta x approaches zero, the limit as delta x tends to zero
Lt
Δx→0
the limit as delta x approaches zero, the limit as delta x tends to zero
m/secmetres per second
x ∈ Ax belongs to A; x is a member of A; x is an element of A
x∉ Ax does not belong to A; x is not  a member of A; x is not an element of A
A⊂ BA is contained in B; A is a proper subset of B
A ⊆ BA is contained in B; A is a subset of B
A ⋂ BA intersection B
A ⋃ BA union B
cos xcos x; cosine x
sin xsine x
tan xtangent x, tan x
cosec xcosec x
sinh xshine x
cosh xcosh x
tanh xthan x
|x|mod x; modulus x
18 ℃eighteen degrees Centigrade
70 ℉seventy degrees Fahrenheit

Có nhiều biểu tượng thông dụng hàng ngày như dấu chấm, dấu phẩy, dấu chấm cảm, dấu ngoặc đơn, ngoặc kép, ngoặc vuông, dấu a còng dùng trong địa chỉ email..vv ta cần phải biết cách diễn đạt trong tiếng Anh.

. dấu chấm cuối câu = period (kiểu Mỹ) hoặc Full Stop (kiểu Anh, Úc, Tân Tây Lan)

, dấu phẩy = comma

: dấu hai chấm = colon

; dấu chấm phẩy = semicolon

! dấu chấm cảm = exclamation mark

? dấu hỏi = question mark

– dấu gạch ngang = hyphen

‘ dấu phẩy phía trên bên phải một từ dùng trong sở hữu cách hoặc viết tắt một số từ =  apostrophe

— dấu gạch ngang dài = dash

‘ ‘ dấu trích dẫn đơn = single quotation mark

” ” dấu trích dẫn kép = double quotation marks

( ) dấu ngoặc = parenthesis (hoặc ‘brackets’)

[ ] dấu ngoặc vuông = square brackets

& dấu và (and) = ampersand

→ dấu mũi tên = arrow

+ dấu cộng = plus

– dấu trừ = minus

± dấu cộng hoặc trừ = plus or minus

× dấu nhân = is multiplied by

÷ dấu chia = is divided by

= dấu bằng = is equal to

≠ is not equal to

≡ is equivalent to

< is less than

> is more than

≤ is less than or equal to

≥ is more than or equal to

% dấu phần trăm = per cent (không thêm S bao giờ)

∞ dấu vô cực = infinity

° biểu tượng độ = degree

°C biểu tượng độ C = degree(s) Celsius

′ biểu tượng phút = minute

” biểu tượng giây = second

# biểu tượng số = number

@ dấu a còng hay a móc = at (123@yahoo.com đọc là ‘123 at yahoo dot com’)

. dấu chấm không phải chấm cuối câu = dot  (123@yahoo.com đọc là ‘123 at yahoo dot com’)

\ dấu suyệt phải = back slash

/ dấu suyệt trái = slash hoặc forward slash

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